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“The hospital shall keep all patients, men and women, until they are completely recovered. All costs are to be borne by the hospital whether the people come from afar or near, whether they are residents or foreigners, strong or weak, low or high, rich or poor, employed or unemployed, blind or signed, physically or mentally ill, learned or illiterate. There are no conditions of consideration and payment; none is objected to or even indirectly hinted at for non-payment. The entire service is through the magnificence of God, the generous one.”

Policy statement of the bimaristan of Al-Mansur Qalawun in Cairo, c. 1284CE

The modern West’s approach to health and medicine owes countless debts to the ancient past: Babylon, Egypt, Greece, Rome and India, to name a few. The hospital is an invention that was both medical and social, and today it is an institution we take for granted, hoping rarely to need it but grateful for it when we do. Almost anywhere in the world now, we expect a hospital to be a place where we can receive ease from pain and help for healing in times of illness or accidents.

We can do that because of the systematic approach — both scientifically and socially —to health care that developed in medieval Islamic societies. A long line of caliphs, sultans, scholars and medical practitioners took ancient knowledge and time-honored practices from diverse traditions and melded them with their original research to feed centuries of intellectual achievement and drive a continual quest for improvement. Their bimaristan, or asylum of the sick, was not only the true forerunner of the modern hospital, but also virtually indistinguishable from the modern multi-service healthcare and medical education center.

The bimaristan served variously as a center of treatment, a convalescent home for those recovering from illness or accident, a psychological asylum and a retirement home that gave basic maintenance to the aged and infirm who lacked a family to care for them.

Asylum of the Sick

The bimaristan was but one important result of the great deal of energy and thought medieval Islamic civilizations put into developing the medical arts. Attached to the larger hospitals — then as now — were medical schools and libraries where senior physicians taught students how to apply their growing knowledge directly with patients. Hospitals set examinations for the students and issued diplomas. The institutional bimaristans were devoted to the promotion of health, the curing of diseases and the expansion and dissemination of medical knowledge.

The First Hospitals

Although places for ill persons have existed since antiquity, most were simple, without more than a rudimentary organization and care structure. Incremental improvements continued through the Hellenistic period, but these facilities would barely be recognizable as little more than holding locations for the sick. In early medieval Europe, the dominant philosophical belief held that the origin of illness was supernatural and thus uncontrollable by human intervention: As a result, hospitals were little more than hospices where patients were tended by monks who strove to assure the salvation of the soul without much effort to cure the body.

Muslim physicians took a completely different approach. Guided by sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (hadith) like “God never inflicts a disease unless He makes a cure for it,” collected by Bukhari, and “God has sent down the disease and the cure, and He has appointed a cure for every disease, so treat yourselves medically,” collected by Abu’d-Darda, they took as their goal the restoration of health by rational, empirical means.

Hospital design reflected this difference in approach. In the West, beds and spaces for the sick were laid out so that the patients could view the daily sacrament of the Mass. Plainly (if at all) decorated, they were often dim and, owing to both climate and architecture, often damp as well. In the Islamic cities, which largely benefited from drier, warmer climates, hospitals were set up to encourage the movement of light and air. This supported treatment according to humoralism, a system of medicine concerned with corporal rather than spiritual balance.

Mobile Dispensaries

The first known Islamic care center was set up in a tent by Rufaydah al-Aslamiyah during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad. Famously, during the Ghazwah Khandaq (Battle of the Ditch), she treated the wounded in a separate tent erected for them.

Later rulers developed these forerunners of “mash” units into true traveling dispensaries, complete with medicines, food, drink, clothes, doctor and pharmacists. Their mission was to meet the needs of outlying communities that were far from the major cities and permanent medical facilities.

They also provided the rulers themselves with mobile care. By the early 12th-century reign of Seljuq Sultan Muhammad Saljuqi, the mobile hospital had become so extensive that it needed 40 camels to transport it.

Permanent Hospitals

The first Muslim hospital was only a leprosarium — an asylum for lepers — constructed in the early eighth century in Damascus under Umayyad Caliph Walid ibn ‘Abdul-Malik. Physicians appointed to it were compensated with large properties and munificent salaries. Patients were confined (leprosy was well known to be contagious), but like the blind, they were granted stipends that helped care for their families.

The earliest documented general hospital was built in 805 in Baghdad.

The earliest documented general hospital was built about a century later, in 805, in Baghdad, by the vizier to the caliph Harun ar-Rashid. Few details are known, but the prominence as court physicians of members of the Bakhtishu’ family, former heads of the Persian medical academy at Jundishapur, suggests they played important roles in its development.

Over the following decades, 34 more hospitals sprang up throughout the Islamic world, and the number continued to grow each year. In Kairouan, in present-day Tunisia, a hospital was built in the ninth century, and others were established at Makkah and Madinah. Persia had several: One in the city of Rayy was headed for a time by its Baghdad-educated native son, Muhammad ibn Zakariyyah ar-Razi.

In the 10th century five more hospitals were built in Baghdad. The earliest was established in the late ninth century by Al-Mu’tadid, who asked Ar-Razi to oversee its construction and operations. To start, Ar-Razi wanted to determine the most salubrious place in the city: He had pieces of fresh meat placed in various neighborhoods, and some time later, he checked to determine which had rotted the least and sited the hospital there. When it opened, it had 25 doctors, including oculists, surgeons and bonesetters. The numbers and specialties grew until 1258, when the Mongols destroyed Baghdad.

The vizier ‘Ali ibn Isa ibn Jarah ibn Thabit wrote in the early 10th century to the chief medical officer of Baghdad about another group:

I am very much worried about the prisoners. Their large numbers and the condition of prisons make it certain that there must be many ailing persons among them. Therefore, I am of the opinion that they must have their own doctors who should examine them every day and give them, where necessary, medicines and decoctions. Such doctors should visit all prisons and treat the sick prisoners there.

Shortly afterward a separate hospital was built for convicts, fully staffed and supplied.

In Egypt, the first hospital was built in 872 in the southwestern quarter of Fustat, now part of Old Cairo, by the ‘Abbasid governor of Egypt, Ahmad ibn Tulun. It is the first documented facility that provided care also for mental as well as general illnesses. In the 12th century, Saladin founded in Cairo the Nasiri hospital, which later was surpassed in size and importance by the Mansuri, completed in 1284. It remained the primary medical center in Cairo through the 15th century, and today, renamed Qalawun Hospital, it is used for ophthalmology.

In Damascus the Nuri hospital was the leading one from the time of its foundation in the mid-12th century well into the 15th century, by which time the city contained five additional hospitals.

In the Iberian Peninsula, Cordóba alone had 50 major hospitals. Some were exclusively for the military, and the doctors there supplemented the specialists who attended to the caliphs, military commanders and nobles.


In a fashion that would still be recognizable today, the typical Islamic hospital was subdivided into departments such as systemic diseases, surgery, ophthalmology, orthopedics and mental diseases. The department of systemic diseases was roughly equivalent to today’s department of internal medicine, and it was usually further subdivided into sections dealing with fevers, digestive troubles, infections and more. Larger hospitals had more departments and diverse subspecialties, and every department had an officer-in-charge and a presiding officer in addition to a supervising specialist.

Hospitals were staffed also with a sanitary inspector who was responsible for assuring cleanliness and hygienic practices. In addition, there were accountants and other administrative staff to assure that hospital conditions—financial and otherwise—met standards. There was a superintendent, called a sa’ur, who was responsible for overseeing the management of the entire institution.

Physicians worked fixed hours, during which they saw the patients who came to their departments. Every hospital had its own staff of licensed pharmacists (saydalani) and nurses. Medical staff salaries were fixed by law, and compensation was distributed at a rate generous enough to attract the talented.

Funding for the Islamic hospitals came from the revenues of pious bequests called waqfs. Wealthy men and rulers donated property to existing or newly built bimaristans as endowments, and the revenues from the bequests paid for building and maintenance. To help make it pay, such revenues could come from any mix on the property of shops, mills, caravanserais or even entire villages. The income from an endowment would sometimes also cover a small stipend to the patient upon dismissal. Part of the state budget also went toward the maintenance of hospitals. To patients, the services of the hospital were free, though individual physicians occasionally charged fees.

Patient Care

Bimaristans were open to everyone on a 24-hour basis. Some only saw men while others, staffed by women physicians, saw only women; still others cared for both in separate wings with duplicate facilities and resources. To treat less serious cases, physicians staffed outpatient clinics and prescribed medicines to be taken at home.

Special measures were taken to prevent infection. Inpatients were issued hospital wear from a central supply area while their own clothes were kept in the hospital store. When taken to the hospital ward, patients would find beds with clean sheets and special stuffed mattresses ready. The hospital rooms and wards were neat and tidy with abundant running water and sunlight.

Inspectors evaluated the cleanliness of the hospital and the rooms on a daily basis. It was not unusual for local rulers to make personal visits to make sure patients were getting the best care.

The course of treatment prescribed by doctors began immediately upon arrival. Patients were placed on a fixed diet, depending on condition and disease. The food was of high quality and included chicken and other poultry, beef and lamb, and fresh fruits and vegetables.

The major criterion of recovery was that patients be able to ingest, at one time, an amount of bread normal to a healthy person, along with the roasted meat of a whole bird. If patients could easily digest it, they were considered recovered and subsequently released. Patients who were cured but too weak to discharge were transferred to the convalescent ward until they were strong enough to leave. Needy patients were given new clothes, along with a small sum to aid them in re-establishing their livelihood.

The 13th-century doctor and traveler ‘Abdul-Latif al-Baghdadi, who also taught at Damascus, narrated an amusing story of a clever Persian youth who was so tempted by the excellent food and service of the Nuri hospital that he feigned illness. The doctor who examined him figured out what the young man was up to and admitted him nevertheless, providing the youth with fine food for three days. On the fourth day, the doctor went to his patient and said with a rueful smile, “Traditional Arab hospitality lasts for three days: Please go home now!”

The quality of care was subject to review and even arbitration, as related by Ibn Al-Ukhuwa in his book Ma’alem al-Qurba fi Talab al-Hisba (The Features of Relations in Al-Hisba):

If the patient is cured, the physician is paid. If the patient dies, his parents go to the chief doctor; they present the prescriptions written by the physician. If the chief doctor judges that the physician has performed his job perfectly without negligence, he tells the parents that death was natural; if he judges otherwise, he tells them: Take the blood money of your relative from the physician; he killed him by his bad performance and negligence. In this honorable way, they were sure that medicine is practiced by experienced, well-trained persons.

In addition to the permanent hospitals, cities and major towns also had first aid and acute care centers. These were typically located at busy public places such as large mosques. Maqrizi described one in Cairo:

Ibn Tulun, when he built his world-famous mosque in Egypt, at one end of it there was a place for ablutions and a dispensary also as annexes. The dispensary was well equipped with medicines and attendants. On Fridays there used to be a doctor on duty there so that he might attend immediately to any casualties on the occasion of this mammoth gathering.

Medical Schools & Libraries

Because one of the major roles of the hospitals was the training of physicians, each hospital had a large lecture theater where students, along with senior physicians and medical officers, would meet and discuss medical problems in seminar style. As training progressed, medical students would accompany senior physicians to the wards and participate in patient care — much like a modern residency program.

Surviving texts, such as those in Ibn Abi Usaybi’ah’s ‘Uyun al-anba’ fi tabaqat al-atibb’(Sources of Information on Classes of Physicians), as well as student notes, reveal details of these early clinical rounds. There are instructions on diets and recipes for common treatments, including skin diseases, tumors and fevers. During rounds, students were told to examine the patients’ actions, excreta, and the nature and location of swelling and pain. Students were also instructed to note the color and feel of the skin, whether hot, cool, moist, dry or loose.

Training culminated in an examination for a license to practice medicine. Candidates had to appear before the region’s government-appointed chief medical officer. The first step required was to write a treatise on the subject in which the candidate wanted to obtain a certificate. The treatise could be an original piece of research or a commentary on existing texts, such as those of Hippocrates, Galen and, after the 11th century, Ibn Sina, and more.

Candidates were encouraged not only to study these earlier works, but also to scrutinize them for possible errors. This emphasis on empiricism and observation rather than slavish adherence to authorities was one of the key engines of the medieval Islamic intellectual ferment. Upon completion of the treatise, candidates were interviewed at length by the chief medical officer, who asked them questions relevant to problems of the prospective specialties. Satisfactory answers led to licensed practices.

Another key aspect to the hospital, and of critical importance to both students and teachers, was the presence of extensive medical libraries. By the 14th century, Egypt’s Ibn Tulun Hospital had a library comprising 100,000 books on various branches of medical science. This was at a time when Europe’s largest library, at the University of Paris, held 400 volumes.

Cradle of Islamic medicine and prototype for today’s hospitals, bimaristans count among numerous scientific and intellectual achievements of the medieval Islamic world. But of them all, when ill health or injury strikes, there is no legacy more meaningful.

 The author has advanced degrees in history and epidemiology. After 23 years in Saudi Arabia as an epidemiologist with Saudi Aramco, he lives in Florida.

 AramcoWorld, March/April 2017, pp.22-27

By Dr. Aisha Hamdan

“Immunizations the best thing to protect your child from a variety of diseases.”

You hear this from your doctor from the media, from the brochures in the clinic, from your friends. But, did you ever stop to think twice about what it all means? 

Did you ever look deeper into the issue and the other side of the story?

Well let’s read on…..

Your child is just born and one of the first things you do is call the clinic to schedule an appointment for your first “well-baby” visit. During the visit, after about 1 or 2 months, you can expect your baby to be weighed, measured, and put through excruciating pain from several shots in the leg. Your baby has just received his first immunization (or vaccination) shots and you allow it to happen without even questioning. It is just assumed that your pediatrician has your best interests in mind and that immunizations are the best thing to protect your child from a variety of diseases. You hear this from your doctor, from the media, from the brochures in the clinic, from your friends. You figure that the pain your baby has just gone through is worth the protection that he receives.

But, did you ever stop to think twice about what it all means? Did you ever look deeper into the issue and read the other side of the story? (The one that is not provided by your doctor). Did you know, for example, that immunizations may cause serious side effects in children, even as serious as death? Did you know that immunizations actually weaken the immune system and make it work less effectively and efficiently? Were you aware that immunizations contain harmful chemicals that are not indigenous to the body? Did you know that your child might still contract a disease even if he or she has been immunized against?

If you have a new baby, a young child or are considering having children in the future, these are concerns that you want to investigate and learn more about. Many parents have, and they have decided NOT to immunise their children. Let us look into this matter more closely and also consider it form an Islamic perspective. The health and well being of your child may be at stake.

Myths and Realities

Myth 1. “Vaccines are effective at protecting people from diseases”

Reality: Many studies in the medical literature have documented vaccine failure. Measles, mumps, small pox, polio and Hib outbreaks have all occurred in vaccinated populations. In 1989, for example measles outbreaks occurred in schools with vaccination levels greater than 98% (Centres for Disease Control). The World Health Organization has actually found that a person who is vaccinated for measles has a 15 times greater likelihood of contracting the disease than a person who is not. The effectiveness of the whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine has been reported to be around 50%. In an incident in Kansas in 1986, 90% of pertussis cases were found to have been vaccinated. In another study of rubella, 36% of adolescent females who had been vaccinated against the disease lacked evidence of immunity by blood tests. Following the introduction of the diphtheria vaccine in various countries, incidents of the disease actually increased phenomenally. In France, there was a 30% increase; in Hungary, a 55% increase; and in Geneva, Switzerland, there was a tripling of the disease. All of this occurring after the introduction of mass compulsory vaccinations in those countries. In Australia, where vaccinations are not mandatory and only about ½ of the population receives them, the rates of illness are the same for both the vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups. 

What all of these facts point to (and there are many more related to this) is that vaccinations are not as effective as people are made to believe. A person who has been vaccinated has no guarantee that he will not contract the disease and chances are that if he does, it will be at a later age when the consequences are much more serious. The truth of the matter is that when immunity to disease is acquired naturally (such as through breastfeeding or through contact at a young age), the possibility of re-infection is only 3.2%. If the “immunity” comes from the artificial means of vaccinations, the chance of re-infection is 80%. In any epidemic, only a small percentage of the population actually contracts the disease, many of them being naturally immune. If a person who has been vaccinated does not contract the disease, this proves nothing. Chances are that even without the vaccination, he or she would not have gotten the disease any way.

Myth 2: “Vaccines are the main reason for declines in disease rates”

Reality: Most declines in diseases occurred before the introduction of mass immunizations. Infectious disease deaths in the United States and England declined an average of 80% prior to vaccinations. The British Association for the Advancement of Science found that childhood diseases decreased by 90% between 1850 and 1940, long before mandatory vaccination programs. European countries that refused immunizations for small pox and polio saw these epidemics end along with countries that had mandated them. Other infectious diseases continued to decline even in the absence of vaccines for them. This included declines in tuberculosis, chicken pox, scarlet fever, typhus, typhoid and plague. 

So what, you may ask, were the reasons for the decrease in diseases at this point in time. Research has found that improved sanitation and hygienic practices; along with improvements in diet and other health factors were the main contributing factors in eradication many diseases. A recent report by the World Health Organization supported this fact. The report found that “disease and mortality rates in third world countries have no direct correlation with immunization procedures or medical treatment, but are closely related to the standard of diet and hygiene.” What this means is that it is not as important to be immunized as it is to eat healthily and maintain personal hygiene and environmental cleanliness.

Myth 3: “Vaccines are completely safe for children.”

Reality: Vaccines are much more dangerous than we are even aware of. This is information that you will probably not receive from your doctor and if you child does have a reaction, it is unlikely that your doctor will report it. In 1986, the United States Congress created The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act, which acknowledges the reality of vaccine-caused injuries and death. This law requires doctors to provide parents with information about the benefits and risks of childhood vaccines prior to vaccination and also requires doctors to report vaccine reactions to federal health officials. The Food and Drug Administration, which monitors this (along with the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention), acknowledged that 90% of doctors do not report vaccine reactions as required by law.

More than 12,000 adverse reactions to vaccines are reported each year. If the rate of under-reporting is considered, this number should be closer to 120,000. Vaccine-related deaths occurring each year may be over 1000. The compensation portion of the Vaccine Injury Act awards up to $250,000 if a child dies from a vaccination or millions in dollars to cover lifelong medical bills, pain and suffering in the case of a brain-damaged child. By 1997, more than $802 million had been awarded for hundreds of injuries and deaths (5000 cases, 700 of which were deaths). Thousands of cases are still pending and the estimated future liability for the government exceeds $1.7 billion. A portion of the money that parents pay for vaccinations goes to this congressional fund, which basically means that you are paying insurance each time your child is vaccinated.

In many cases, vaccinations are more serious than the diseases they are meant to protect a person from. The pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine is probably the most dangerous. The chances of suffering a serious adverse reaction to DPT vaccines are 1 in 1750, while the chances of dying from pertussis each year are 1 in several million. A study at UCLA found that 1 in 13 children had persistent high pitched crying after the DPT shot. One in 700 had convulsions or shock, which may cause learning disabilities or brain damage. Vaccinations, in general, have been linked to disorders of the blood, brain, skin, and nervous system. This includes encephalitis (central nervous system disorder, brain damage), paralysis, nerve inflammation, diseases of the lymph glands, skin disorders, allergies, arthritis, cancer.

National and International studies have shown a link between vaccinations and SIDS (sudden Infant Death Syndrome). One study found that the peak incidence of SIDS occurred at the ages of 2 and 4 months, the time when the first routine vaccinations are given. Another study concluded that ½ of SIDS cases (2500 of 5000) are related to vaccinations. In the mid-70’s, when Japan raised their vaccinations age from 2 months to 2 years, the incidence of SIDS dropped dramatically. The disturbing fact in the United State is that coroners refuse to check the vaccination state of SIDS victims, which makes it difficult to prove many cases.

Other important truths to consider include the fact that vaccinations actually weaken the immune system rather than strengthen it. They only focus on one aspect of the immune system, which interferes with the body’s ability to initiate a “generalized response”. Only that one particular aspect of the system will function. What this means is that the vaccinations produce immune suppression which contributes to an increased susceptibility to other diseases and infections. This may explain why the rate of childhood illness has actually increased rather than decreased in this society. Vaccinations also contain additional chemicals such as formaldehyde, mercury (thimerosal), and aluminum phosphate, which are extremely toxic substances that can lead to hazardous effects. Microscopic doses may lead to cancer, neurological damage, and even death. Several of these may accumulate in the body such that the lethality increases as the number of vaccine increase.

And the story continues. This is only the tip of the iceberg and there is a larger amount of information available for those who wish to learn more (see websites listed below). It is important that parents become educated and knowledgeable about immunizations so that they can make an informed choice rather than be manipulated by the medical establishment.

It is important that parents become educated and knowledgeable about immunizations so that they can make an informed choice rather than be manipulated by the medical establishment.

An Islamic Perspective

From an Islamic perspective there are several issues that need to be considered in relation to this topic. This discussion goes much deeper than the mere physical effects of immunizations. We need to peruse the Creation of Allah, subhanahu wa ta’ala, and its perfection, the Provisions and Sustenance provided to us by Allah, and Will of Allah as it pertains to our existence. Let us proceed.

Creation of Allah

Allah says, “We have indeed created man in the best of moulds.” (95:4). The Arabic word in this verse is taqweem, which can be translated as mold, form, nature, constitution. Although this especially refers to the spiritual nature of man, it can also mean the mental and physical structure. There is no faulty in Allah’s creation. Allah gave man the purest and best nature, and perfection and balance are evident in man’s physical, mental, and spiritual composition. Allah, subhanahu wa ta’la, says,

“O mankind! What has made you careless concerning your Lord, the Most Generous? Who created you, fashioned you, and gave you due proportion; in whatever form He willed, He put you together.” (Qur’an 82:6-8).

Focusing on the physical aspect, one need only study the systems of the body to comprehend the significance of these verses and the wonder of Allah’s creation. The human body is composed of a number of specialized systems: the digestive system, the respiratory system, the nervous system, the muscular system, the blood circulation system, the skeleton, the skin, the senses, the immune system and so forth. Each one of these system is miraculous in nature and more amazing than any scientific advancement that man can achieve. (Sayyid Qutb, In the Shade of the Qur’an). Why then is man so heedless? Why does he overlook the wonders of his own constitution? Why does he neglect the One who gave him these special gifts? “O mankind! What has made you careless concerning our Lord, the Most Generous?” Why does he think that he can improve the perfect creation of Allah and make it work more effectively?

Dr. Aisha HamdanConcerning immunizations, this is exactly what humans are attempting to do. The assumption behind them is that the body is not “perfect” enough to withstand infectious diseases; that somehow Allah did not complete his job or carry it out well enough (astaghfir Allah); that the immune system is faulty and needs correction; that a young baby, as little as 1 or 2 months old, is somehow flawed, incomplete, and in need of human intervention to survive. All of these assumptions are erroneous and reflect a skepticism that should not be present in the belief system of a Muslim. This may seem like an intense subject for what would appear to be a straight forward issue, but a deeper level of analysis is required here. One cannot doubt the verses of the Qur’an highlighted above nor expect that he can accomplish more than Allah. As Muslims we should not fall into this kind of trap. We must believe in the perfection of Allah’s creation and understand that immunizations are in no way able to improve upon it. Chances are that they will only disturb the system and introduce an imperfection, (which is already being determined by research).

Provisions of Allah

Allah, subhanahu wa ta’ala, not only created us in the finest form, but He also gave us the tools to maintain this form and to assist in its self-actualization. We are warned that our body and our health are gifts from Allah and that we will be held accountable on the Day of Judgment of them. The Prophet (pbuh) informed us, “Every servant of Allah will remain standing before Allah on the Day of Judgment until he has answered five questions about five things; his life – how he spent it; his knowledge – how much he acted upon it; his wealth – how he acquired it and how he spent it; and his body (and health) – how he used it.” (Muslims). The Prophet (Pbuh) also said, “There are two blessings which many people lose: (They are) health and free time for doing good.” (Bukhari)

It is incumbent upon a Muslim to take care of his body to the best of his ability and to follow what Allah has ordained in this regard. The provisions of Allah are many. A mother is instructed to nurse her child from the moment of birth. Allah says,

“Mothers shall nurse their children two complete years for whoever wishes to complete the nursing (period).” (Qur’an 2:233). 

Breast milk has been found to be the most beneficial substance for a baby and contains much more than nutrients. It also provides antibodies, strengthens the immune system, and protects the child from many diseases. This is a wondrous gift that gives an already healthy baby an even healthier start in life.

Muslims are instructed to eat from the good and lawful food of the earth.

“They ask you what is lawful to them (as food): say: Lawful unto you are (all) things good and pure.” (Qur’an 5:4) 

“O you people! Eat of what is on earth lawful and good; and do not follow the footsteps of the evil one for he is to you an avowed enemy.” (Qur’an 2:168). 

We now know the benefits of eating healthy and pure food and avoiding all that is harmful to our bodies. The use of honey, black seed, dates, olive oil, etc. are encouraged to prevent illness and as cures when the need arises. The type of food that we eat can affect all of our bodily systems, oftentimes in very insidious ways.

Other provisions that Allah, subhanahu wa ta’ala, has given us include the command to avoid alcohol and all types of drugs, which can lead to serious consequences (health-related and others). Adultery and fornication are forbidden, which can cause various types of sexually transmitted diseases. Pork and pork products, which may lead to various illnesses, are also not allowed. And so on…..

What this means in relation to immunizations is that they are really unnecessary. For one who follows the commands of Allah, the chances of having long-term health will be increased. Even if a disease is contracted, the person with a strong immune system will likely be able to combat it. This in turn, will strengthen the immune system more and give life-long immunity to that particular disease. As mentioned earlier, immunizations actually have weaken the immune system and led to all types of problems in children. Their use has even upset the epidemiology of illnesses, causing them to appear more often in adulthood when the effects are usually much more serious. It is evident from all of this that manipulation and altering Allah’s creation only leads to detrimental outcomes.

Will of Allah

We often forget that what happens in our lives comes from the Will and Power of Allah. Nothing occurs except what has been decreed by Allah. Although we do have some limited control over events, the ultimate control is with Us are its depositories, and We do not send it down except according to a known (specified) measure.” (15:21). 

“Say you (o Muhammad): ‘Indeed the affairs belong wholly to Allah.’ (Qur’an 3:154)

If a child is to experience an illness, this is from the decree of Allah; and if he is to be cured from it, this is also from the decree of Allah. To rely upon humans to somehow prevent or cure the child without also trusting in Allah, is a sign of weakness in faith. Whatever good or bad happens to us we should say “Alhumdulillah” because it is from Allah and He has decreed it for some reason (either as a test or as punishment). Allah says,

“No calamity befalls, but with the leave (decision and Qadar) of Allah, and whosoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart, and Allah is the all Knower of everything.” (Qur’an 64:11). 

We should rely upon Allah and ask Him to assist us in our times of need. The use of ruqya (supplication to Allah) is much more powerful than any medicine that is available because Allah is the only One Who can send the cure.


Although Islam is not contrary to medical and technological “Development”, it is important to understand that these are not always in our best interests. Many of these “advancements” have actually led to serious, detrimental outcomes. Television, for example, has been lauded as one of the major inventions of this century, but at the same time it has lead to the numbing of children’s minds, a decline in communication within families, and misguidance for many. Immunizations are touted as a miraculous form of illness prevention, when in fact they are nothing more than a moneymaking scheme for doctors and pharmaceutical companies. They have, in actuality, caused more hams than benefits and have disrupted the natural order of Allah’s Creation.

Before you take your child for; his or her next round of immunizations consider this important information and research the topic further. It is in the best interests of your child to do so. Look to Allah’s guidance (the Qur’an and Sunnah) for assistance in all matters, including physical health. If we follow Allah’s plan in creation and submit to His commands, there should be no need for artificial interventions. Allah, subhanahu wa ta’ala, ha provided us with bounties beyond our imagination and they are readily and naturally available to us. We only need to make use of them.

The Shocking Facts:

By the time a child enters first grade, he or she will have received as many as 10 different vaccines for a total of 19 shots. 98% of children living in the United State receive the recommended shots

  • The numbers of vaccines has doubled in the last decade
  • New vaccines are coming out on a more regular basis
  • The United Nations has committed $150 million to develop a “Super Vaccine” to provide immunity against 30 childhood diseases in a single shot.

In 1950, before mass immunizations began, the United States had the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world. By 1995, it dropped to 23rd place and is world renowned for its appalling infant mortality rate. 

Vaccination Websites:

Think twice Global Vaccine Institute.

(Contains a link for the New Atlantean Press which publishes and sells book on vaccinations).

Dispelling Vaccination Myths

Vaccine and Immunization Information Links.

National Vaccine Information Center

Global Vaccine Awareness League

Vaccines: The Truth Revealed

The Prophet (saws) said:
“Verily, Allah is Pure and He loves purity…” Allah has never put the cure of my Ummah in substances which have been made haraam for them.”

Since there is a natural affinity between kufr and filth (Najaasat), it is not at all surprising to learn of the filthy and impure practises employed by the kufr western medical establishment. The emphasis of the kuffaar is always on the employment of evil, impure and haraam methods and agencies.

The article on Immunisation indicates the repugnant and revolting methods of the western medicine world. Instead of being a curer of disease, the western medical system is a creator of disease on an alarming scale.

Its system of immunisation is in fact, one of the most dreadful medical hoaxes and conspiracies ever engineered in the annals of human history.

islam and immunizationsCenturies of domination by the kuffaar has blinded the vision of Muslims and stunted their understanding. Every miserable and satanic idea and innovation spawned by the western kuffaar is being regarded as divine truth to be unquestioningly accepted and followed regardless of the disaster which ensues in its wake.

Minds have truly become perverted when they accept that pus, rotten animal blood, faeces and the like are fit remedies for humanity. Imaan entertains a natural aversion for everything filthy and contaminated. Najasat is the very antithesis of the Taharat and Nazaafat (Purity and Cleanliness) which the Deen has ordained for Mu’mineen. It is only logical and necessary for the Mu’min to discern in this filthy and disease-causing system of immunisation the work and sinister machinations of shaitaan who has employed the western medical establishment to enmesh mankind in one of his most thorough and most destructive plots.


When Allah Azza Wa Jal has categorically announced that this Ummah’s medicine and treatment are not linked with filth poison and haraam, then it does not behove Muslim doctors to adopt the evil and contaminated ways of the kuffaar medical establishment. They have an Islamic duty on their shoulders to distance themselves from all pure and harmful ‘remedies’ of the medical profession which they have acquired. Some concerned Non-Muslim medical personnel have exposed the fraud of some of the practices of western medicine. Their investigations have laid bare the calamities of immunisation They have exposed the myth of immunisation Far from it being the saviour it has been portrayed to be, it in reality is one of the most dreadful frauds ever perpetrated on such a massive and organised scale.

While Muslims in this modern age are adept in the art of emulating all the harmful and haraam practices of the kuffaar, they do not demonstrate equal enthusiasm for the positive aspects which some among the kuffaar now and again present.


The case against immunisation is not based on any prejudice or on any attitude of religious fanaticism as some or many among the medical fraternity would like the public to believe. The charge against this evil practice is raised on sound medical proofs which the result of investigation and research by members of the medical fraternity itself.

It now devolves on Muslim medical doctors to pursue these investigations to further expose and explode this horrible myth. By so doing, they will become the benefactors, not only of Muslims, but of entire mankind at large.

By Dr. A. Majid Katme, MBBCh, DPM (medical doctor)
Spokesman, Islamic Medical Association (UK)

Dr. A. Majid KatmeWe are giving our innocent children haraam (forbidden) substances and harmful chemicals that destroy their natural immune systems, causing disease, suffering and death.  All Muslim doctors and parents should be aware of vaccine ingredients, and of the failed efficacy of vaccines.  The harm is clearly greater than the benefit.  The time has come to take a stand for truth.

Vaccine Ingredients

Vaccine ingredients include heavy metals, pus from sores of diseased animals, horse serum, calf serum, faecal matter, foetal cells, urine, macerated cancer cells, sweepings from diseased children, formaldehyde (a carcinogen used in embalming fluid), phenol (a carcinogen capable of causing paralysis, convulsions, coma, necrosis and gangrene), lactalbumin hydrolysate (an emulsifier), aluminium phosphate (an aluminium salt that is corrosive to tissues), retro-virus SV-40 (a contaminant virus in some polio vaccines), antibiotics (e.g., neomycin tm) that lead to antibiotic resistance, chick embryo (as a growth medium for the virus), sodium phosphate (a buffering salt), and foreign animal tissues containing genetic material (DNA/RNA) from the growth medium.  Vaccines are also contaminated with mycoplasma, bacteria, monkey viruses and various adjuvants.  Heavy metals include thiomersal (mercury) as a preservative and aluminium as an adjuvant.  Mercury and aluminium have each been proved to damage the brain and nervous system.  In some cases, thiomersal has been replaced by another neurotoxin known as 2PE.  Vaccines also contain monosodium glutamate (MSG), sorbitol, and gelatine.  Many of these ingredients are not allowed for Muslims, Jews, Hindus or vegetarians.

A Fatally-flawed System of Intervention

Vaccination is based on the long-discredited theory that stimulation of antibodies in the human body equals protection from disease.  This theory has not only failed to be proved, but has been repeatedly disproved.  Stimulation of antibodies does not equal immunity and certainly does not equal permanent immunity.  The presence of antibodies is merely a sign of exposure to a disease, which is just one small aspect of what makes up the immune system.  Children, with underdeveloped and immature immune systems, receive today about 25 separate vaccines by the age of 13 months.  There is no doubt this irresponsible system disrupts and can even destroy the development of their immune systems forever.

Vaccines commonly given to children in the United Kingdom today include – TWO MONTHS: diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, HIB meningitis and polio + pneumococcal (six components, two needles); THREE MONTHS: diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, HIB meningitis and polio + meningitis C (six components, two needles); FOUR MONTHS: diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, HIB meningitis and polio + pneumococcal + meningitis C (seven components, three needles); 12 MONTHS: HIB meningitis and meningitis C (two components, two needles); 13 MONTHS: measles, mumps, rubella + pneumococcal vaccine (four components, two needles).  This reflects a grave medical assault inflicted on the small, weak, defenceless bodies of our innocent children.

Just a Few of the Monstrous Problems

Unthinkably, vaccine studies do not include placebo groups.  Instead, they use other vaccines in “control” groups, making it impossible to properly note actual rates of adverse events between a test group and real control group.  No research has been done on the long-term effects of vaccines.  Post-marketing data of reactions, injury and death go ignored.  Moreover, the system lacks individualization.  Apparently, one size fits all.  There is no pre-screening for immune problems and allergies.  Overloading the human body with infections and sub-infections will irreparably disrupt and destroy the immune system.  Chemicals in vaccines induce allergies, asthma, and autoimmune disease, including autism.  By the way, don’t let any indoctrinated doctor tell you vaccines do not cause autism.  Do your own research. Sexual immorality and adultery are stirred by offering our daughters HPV vaccination against cervical cancer.  Notably and incredibly, the HPV vaccine is shown to make some recipients even more susceptible to cervical cancer.  According to many scientific reports, there is additional concern that some vaccines cause infertility and are used for clandestine population control.  The proper role of medicine is to work to find and prevent the root cause of disease, not treat symptoms or fill the body with chemicals and vaccines.

Islam and Medical Science Must Oppose Vaccination

The case against vaccination is first an Islamic one, based on Islamic ethos regarding the perfection of the natural human body’s immune defence system, empowered by great and prophetic guidance to avoid most infections.  The case against vaccination is also a medical and health-related one.  Incredible evidence, unbeknownst to most, has emerged in the West regarding the many serious health hazards that affect those who have been vaccinated.

Islam and the Immune System

Colostrum in breast milk, a rich source of myriad antibodies, is extraordinarily important in conveying immunity to the child during the first few days after birth.  Breastfeeding up to two years gives incredible immunity into the future.  Medical studies evidence the amazing protection of breastfeeding against infections, even including poliomyelitis. The first two years of life are a crucial time during which the child’s body will develop a natural and mature immune system.  Vaccination disrupts and damages the natural process of human development.  God (Allah), the Creator, the Designer, has organised for the destruction of most germs and viruses through the natural process of entry-and-defence via skin, mucous, and the stomach. This process is very different from injection of a vaccine directly into the body without crossing natural defence barriers.  Twenty-five weakened diseases are destructively pushed by needlepoint into the bodies of our fragile children at a stage when they are developing their own natural defence systems.Infection and disease are medically proven to regularly succumb to spontaneous, self-remitting recovery.  Childhood bouts with infectious disease help build the immune system against future attacks.  As our beloved physician and prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, has told us, for every disease there is a cure.  The final holy book, Al Qur’an, is an awesome medical source for both prevention and cure of disease.  To best prepare the body, the Muslim should use natural and permissible nutrition from Yayyib (natural) food and drink.  Of further importance, we need to address the root causes of morbidity and mortality: poverty, malnutrition, lack of clean drinking water, lack of a healthy and natural foods, lack of proper sewage, and toxins in the environment and body.The Islamic behaviour of seeking halal (lawful) and avoiding harram has been linked to health throughout time by many Muslim doctors and scientists, especially in the field of preventative medicine.  Great care should be given to personal hygiene, including hand washing at about 25 times per day (15 times before the five daily prayers during wudu[absolution]).  Properly practising daily personal hygiene will avoid many infections.  Many fruits and other healthy foods prescribed in Islam have been found to prevent disease and strengthen the immune system, including olive and olive oil, ginger, grapes, pomegranate, vinegar, rosemary and figs.  Islamic-prescribed complementary medicine protects us from disease and strengthens our natural immune system, including honey, fasting, prayer (meditation), Du’A (special prayer) for the sick, black seed, Hijama (blood cupping), holy fruits and foods, breastfeeding, aromatherapy, Zam Zam (drinking holy water at Makkah, Saudi Arabia at the time of pilgrimage), and laying on of hands with a special prayer.  Frequent exposure to the sun for vitamin D and a diet rich in vitamin D prevents many diseases.  Islam prohibits Muslims from taking any harmful medicine or substance.  Even where there is doubt or controversy, Islam orders us to leave it completely.  This applies to vaccines.

The Truth Be Told

Harram in many vaccines include human foetuses, gelatine from pork, alcohol, and human and animal parts. These najis (unclean), haraam ingredients are not given in a state of emergency to save life at present. It is ridiculous to introduce myriad infective agents into millions of people as a “just in case” prevention of future infection. It is very wrong that Muslim doctors have adopted a medical intervention that contains so many haraams and harmful chemicals.
In Islam, the human body is holy.  We should protect and keep it natural, pure, healthy and safe.  As vaccines are neither pure nor natural, it is no wonder that science and medicine have found them to be so incredibly dangerous. A well-orchestrated pharmaceutical industry plan of scaremongering exists to create fear in parents who do not vaccinate their children.  Doctors and governments have been indoctrinated and corrupted by a gigantic and incredibly powerful industry into advocating obligatory vaccination, contrary to health and human and religious rights. This has happened not to advance health, but forprofit.  Vaccines should not be pushed or forced on anyone.

The Case for Opposing Vaccination

  • It disrupts and destroys the natural immune systems of our innocent children
  • It produces many physical and medical problems
  • It increases antibiotic resistance among many patients
  • It can make many people sterile or infertile
  • It contains many harmful chemicals like mercury and aluminium
  • It lacks scientific, independent evidence of efficacy and safety
  • It contains many haraam substances for the 1600 million Muslims in the world (the latest of which is the vaccine for Meningitis for the Muslim Pilgrims who are going to Hajj was found to contain pork, which is harram.)
  • It also contains substances which are prohibited for Jews, Hindus and vegetariansIt is unhygienic and full of filth
  • It wastes trillions of dollars and is making the people and governments in poor third world countries poorer and more in debt, and the drug companies filthy rich
  • It is medically unethical, as it took us away from dealing with the causes of the diseases and work on prevention.  It is a very wrong medical practice to use a vaccine against every ill
  • It lacks transparency and informed consent.  Most parents, the public, and even doctors are not aware of its harms, ingredients and cost
  • A rising number of doctors, health professionals and parents are joining the campaign against vaccination (websites below)
  • We have many natural ways to build a natural strong immune system to fight most infections
  • We have many natural, safe alternatives
  • Incredibly, the Big Pharma producers of vaccines are exempt from any liability or prosecution, regardless of the number of people who die or are injured
  • Our innocent children are suffering and they gave no consent at all for the vaccines forced on them.  This constitutes a medical assault

Web Resources

Islamic Medicine

Edited by Dr. Shahid Athar

Historical Notes

The JIMA believes not only in the revivalism and fine establishment of the tenets of the Islamic faith within the individual and within Muslim society but also in restoration, review, research and compilation of the knowledge of the brilliant past of Islamic Medicine. We have proposed to several Islamic countries to open a department of Islamic Medicine in their medical schools as well as to establish an Institute of Islamic Medicine for gathering extent works of great Hakims of the past, to translate them, to do clinical and laboratory research on their empirical findings and their vast Pharmacopoeia.

To this end, we have obtained permission first to publish in parts the translation by Martin Levey of Adab al-Tabib of Al-Ruhawi’s “Practical ethics of the physicians” which was printed by the American Philosophical Society as the Transactions of APS, vol. 57, part 3, 1967, Philadelphia.

Who was Ruhawi?

Ishaq Ibn Ali Al-Ruhawi must have written his deontological treatise, Adab al-Tabib in the 9th century. After al-Rubawi, to complete the picture, one should mention two of the greatest physician-philosophers of the Islamic World, al-Farabi (d. 950 A.D.) AND IBN SINA (B. 980 A.D.). Al- Ruhawi was probably from Ruha, a city of northwest Iraq. Earlier, it had been called Edessa, a well known center of Nestorian learning at one time. He was a Christian who embraced Islam and had written two works on Galen.

Al-Ruhawi’s Adab al-Tabib is found as a unique copy in the Suleymaniye Kitabhane #1658. It comprises 112 folios, seventeen lines per page and is written in a good Nashki hand. The dedication is to the Sultan Bayezid.

In previous publications the first chapter and part of chapter 11 of Ruhawi’s Adab Al-Tabib were presented. JIMA will continue to publish pertinent sections and chapters of this great work of the second IsIamic Century . (9th century A.D.).


Statement on Edible Matter

(Ruhawi’s Adab al-Tabib translated by Martin Levey)

Since what we have mentioned in regard to the five senses is useful for systematic improvement, a word is in order on the natural matters as an example and for guidance,. We mentioned the natural matters of air, exercise, and rest. It is necessary to follow up with a statement on edible matter, by the way, with brevity and with mention of useful factors which will encourage and urge one to study science in its occurrences and its books.

I say that edible matter may be called food as a synonym since food is sometimes made of it. Real foods are substances which are distinguished from edible matter by the first, second, and third cooking, and their superfluities, which are not eaten, are thrown away. Those substances remain which are suited to become a part of the one who eats [them], and takes the place of what was lost by him since they make a quantitative excess. In this way, he is not dissolved away and does not perish.

The situation is such that you will find that edible things have different tastes and qualities, and accordingly affect the body in various ways. Thus, it is necessary to know their composition and functions. I mean also that one should also understand the body and its natural complexion; together with this it is indispensable for you to know the natural or acquired complexion of its stomach.

Our excellent teacher Galen encourages and leads us to this in his book On Nutrition. He said, “It is necessary that one be careful to know these matters. You find that foods sometimes are slow to swell up and sometimes quick. This depends on the reaction of the stomach at the beginning or by the substances in that which was eaten and drunk. Because some of them are moist, some dry, some viscous, some quickly separating and falling apart, some pungent and acrid, some sour or bitter or sweet or salty, and sometimes these properties are found in drugs, therefore properties of foods are considered as easy remedies.”‘ It is essential that the physician take Galen completely at his word to the full extent of this science for the preservation of life is of great importance.

Galen said that the science of the properties of foods is close to being one of the most useful of medical sciences. While there is not always need to employ the other [sciences] for bodily health, the need for food is always present, both in times of health and illness, for life does not go on without it.

It is not necessary, 0 physician, that you imitate any writer in regard to the properties of foods, their states, and their functions in the body. Some have written volumes on the basis of experience but this experience is insufficient when applied to an actual case. You may, however, find some similar factors which are common but it is not sound to judge by these merely. An example of this is that you find several things which cause diuresis or facilitate an abundant flow, and so on. You find that some are cold and some hot. In teaching this, Galen quoted the scholar and physician before him called Theophilus. It is this, Galen said that Theophilus stated that men are not wise who believe that a single property like taste or heat or smell when found in two things will make them all alike. Aside from this common factor, there may be many different properties. One must not, therefore, treat all substances which empty the belly, or cause diuresis, or have any other common property, as being alike in all their properties. This is so because that (substance] may be hot or cold or salty and not every sweet or salty thing has the same strength in taste. But one may consider that the resultant action of a substance comes from its total make-up. Whoever grasps this principle will make no mistake and will not lose the truth.

It is not convenient for you to hold back anything of a food or drug because of its effect on one sense, and so believing that it possesses only this effect. Sometimes you find that what seems very apparent is one thing but its actual effect is another. Examples are the lentil and cabbage which act oppositely [to their effect on the sense of smell]. They empty some bellies and fill others; they do this since in their creation they are made up of two different substances having two different properties in composition and complexion.

Galen said, “As to the reason why the lentil’ empties and softens the belly of some people, and does not restrict and block it, I add that I explained this in the book On Simple Drugs. It is that many kinds [of drugs] which are considered to be simple and single are compounded, at the beginning of their creation, of different substances with opposite properties instead of what we compound with our skill. In them, there are different activities. You find these in many foods like the lentil, cabbage, and all sea animals which have a skin with a sharp taste; each one of them is composed [of substances] with opposite properties. Thus, their body is hard and slow to swell, the belly is under control and may be emptied. The explanation for this is what when they are cooked, their soup empties the belly but its hard body keeps the belly under control. People, however, disagree about this.

When considering foods, the conditions in the stomach [should be recognized]. You may find that a flame heat dominates it. This may be so because of the complexion brought about in creation or yellow bile which pours into it because it has been deviated from its source on its way to the intestines. In this case the stomach digests some foods which are thick like beef, etc., and the thin ones like the meat of chicken and partridge spoil in it. It is not necessary to examine and experiment with the foods to prohibit some since some are quickly land some are slowly digested, according to the conditions in the stomach. Since this stomach condition is far from normal, it is not correct to make a judgment on the foods in it.

It is necessary to examine once more the question of foods. Some edibles which are in abundance resemble body matter. These are wheat, barley, rice, and similar grains; also there are palatable foods as animal meats which may be quickly cooked and digested. All of these and what is similar to them feed man when they are well prepared; they are good nutritionally.

As to the edibles which do not resemble the body of the eater, when they are together with non-nutritional matter [they] may make one ill if he does not know how to use them. These edibles have excessive sourness, are excessively salty, excessively sweet, and an excessively styptic acridity may predominate. These are more like drugs. Between the extremes of these edibles and their opposites, there are many which, when well prepared, will nourish the eater and not injure him.

There are also those which, because of moderation in taste, are often employed to improve bodies. It improves the health of old people, especially those whose complexion is cold, in whom phlegm predominates, in periods of cold and in cold countries. Understand this, and compare with it the rest of the edibles which have obvious and different tastes. When you recognize good food, then beware of an excess or deficiency but favor moderation. This is better.

Hippocrates had a saying that every excess is an enemy of nature, and a deficiency is lacking in trustworthiness. When one exceeds the natural amount, Hippocrates stated that there is no bearing or appetite or any other favourable thing. Hippocrates also said that when excessive food is ingested, it is superfluous and causes illness with its coldness.’ He stated that it is important that one predetermine the amount of food for the body with regard to the state of the season in which one is. There are two seasons, summer and autumn, when the body cannot endure excessive food. In regard to the seasons of winter and spring, it may take much food. Hippocrates pointed this out in a statement when he declared that the most difficult period for the body to take care of food is in summer and autumn; the easiest time is in winter and spring. Galen explained and commented upon this by saying that bodies begin to be cold in the autumn, to come together to be thick, and then in winter to loosen and to be light. Galen said also that in winter and spring, the belly is hottest and sleep is longer, Because of these two reasons, more food is necessary since more natural bodily heat is required then. Thus, more food is essential. Evidence of this comes from the aged.

It is also indispensable to know the time of the meal and the small snacks. I mean that it is necessary to eat during the day and night, and [it is necessary] to know the time between meals. The eater must know this and also the speed of his digestion, and also how long it takes his stomach to be emptied of the last meal and of spoiled mixtures and excesses. Hippocrates summed this up when he stated in On Epidemics, in the sixth discourse, when he arranged for the food after exercise and before sleep. He said, “Weariness, food, sleep, and coition must be aU organized by a natural arrangement.” He meant that one must predetermine intentionally the quantity of exertion of each one by the eater. Hippocrates said that the body which is not clean, whenever it ingests food, makes its advances in evil

In some edibles like vegetables, there is very little nutriment; in some there is much as in animal meats and hard grains. Some are in between these like the meat of lamb, chicken, partridge, the yolk of eggs, etc. For this reason, it is necessary to know the science of this to use what is valuable according to the need. [Another reason] is that the spoilation of some edibles is rapid since they change so quickly; some are slow to spoil since they are resistant.

Thus, it is incumbent upon the physician to know the arrangements of food according to this and according to the condition of the stomach. It is often convenient to present the quickly changing foods first before those which ripen slowly in order to facilitate the penetration of a hard one so that it not be spoiled were it to precede the quick one. To eat melon, apricot, and others first before bread and other edibles is better. For this reason, one must be careful what he cats after the meal so as not to spoil the food, mixtures, and the stomach. Do not neglect, in view of what i have presented, to take account of age, heat, the countries, habits, occupations, and conditions since the science of an these is necessarily indispensable for everyone who wishes to nourish his body properly. Carry on by these and compare them.

Statement on Beverages

As to drinks, know them in regard to their properties and actions to employ the useful and to beware of what is harmful. One cannot know their temperaments and qualities. Since water is the earliest known (of drinks) and the most honourable in temperament, quali6es, and usefulness one should know its properties in regard to bodily change. Under normal circumstances, there are none. It is substance without colour, without taste, and without smell but it is cold and moist. Its body was created without form, and without connection among its parts except that which is united when it is in a container. It is not nutritious unless one considers its use in the cooking of food and its penetration into parts of the body.

As to the water which is contrary to that here mentioned, its matter has mixed with other matter possessing other attributes like sulphur and borax waters, etc. Waters like these have different tastes and properties. Owing to the fact that they vary in taste, smell and weight, for this reason, they affect the body in different ways. The physician must know the properties of waters and their differences. Otherwise, if the question of water is neglected, great harm will come to the body; this is because it is essential for life and its need is continuous.

So far as internal harm to the body is concerned, then, there are the matter [of water], the matter of the air, the factor of the seasons when they change, and the effect of the winds generally in [some] countries. Therefore, Hippocrates said that he, who wants to study medicine the straightforward way, must do this that I describe. It is, first, that you must consider the times of the year and what can be done since they are not alike. They are very different not only in themselves but compared also to others. Then, attention must be paid to the hot and cold winds, especially those common to all people and those peculiar to each country. It is also necessary to consider the properties of waters since they may not only differ in taste and weight but also be different in [other] properties.

When we reflect on the results of Hippocrates’ advice, we understand that water is important, when suitable, for the preservation of health; it is harmful if not suitable. No one can be more discriminating in acquiring this [knowledge] than were the ancients. The most efficient in this was Hippocrates so listen to his teaching and hold on to it in order to attain your wish in the art of medicine.

Hippocrates said, “I want to inform you of the other waters and which of them are more effective in bringing good health. I shall describe what it is necessary to derive from evil and salty waters since the kind of waters is very important in aiding health.

There are waters which are stagnant, tainted and are at the bottom. These are warm, odorous, and thick in summer for they do not flow. They are used since rainwater does reach them. They tend toward a dirty colour and are bitter. In winter, they are covered with ice, and are turbid with the water coming from snow and hail. These waters are the most apt to cause phlegm, hoarseness, and a large, hard spleen in the one who always drinks them.

He said that these waters are bad for all things. Further, those waters which issue forth from rocky places are harsh like those which come from earth where there are hot waters, or where copper, silver, gold, sulphur, alum, or borax are produced. It is because these are produced form a hot shaft and it is impossible that good waters come from this earth. They are harsh, cause difficulty in urination, and prevent excretion.

He said that the best waters flow from lofty and high places, from mountains which have soil. These waters, whose sources are deeper, are palatable, pure, have little redness, are hot in winter and cold in summer. Superior waters, he said, are those whose sources are opposite to the rising locations of the sun; those after them (in superiority] have their sources between where the summer sun rises and sets. The third best are the waters [whose source is] between where the winter sun sets and where the summer sun sets. The worst waters arise opposite to the north. The waters are very bad in the times of the southern winds but; better in the times of the northern winds. He said that it is necessary to use these waters knowing this. As to the healthy and strong person, it is not essential that the discriminate among the waters; he drinks what is available. He praised rainwater as the lightest purest, most palatable, and finest of waters. This is because when the sun raises the water, it carries off the thinnest and lightest. Consider the use of the saltpan where the salty part of the water remains because of its thickness and heaviness, becoming saltier. The sun carries off the finer water; since it is light it raises it. It is raised from palatable waters, from sea water, from all bodies, and from the bodies of men continuously [especially] that which is the thinnest and lightest of the moisture.

Thus, when a man walks or sits in the sun and puts on his clothes then that part of his body exposed to the sun does not seem to perspire since the sun always carries away the perspiration by evaporating it. That part of his body which is covered with clothes or anything else perspires because the sun causes the sweat to come out. The covering keeps and preserve it. When this man moves into the shade, all his body is so since the rays of the sun do not fall upon him. For this reason, rainwater may be putrid and have a bad odor since it comes from many different kinds of moisture and is mixed with them. As a result, it is the first of waters to stink.

Then, after Hippocrates demonstrated how rainwater comes about, he said, “This water may be the best of waters but it needs to be cleansed by boiling.” Then he said, “If this is not done, then it develops a bad odour and it causes the drinker to be hoarse, to cough, and to have trouble with the voice.” Then said Hippocrates, “As to the water from snow and ice, it is all bad since when water is once frozen, it will not get back to its original properties but that which is pure, light, and palatable is expressed. The sediment and what is close to being a solid remains.”

I have mentioned these quotations from Hippocrates to show the pressing need of water and to encourage you to study this science in the books of Hippocrates and Galen.

I shall now return to the value of taking hot water baths. The value of this bathing is different for the sick and for those who are well. For healthy people, it is good to bathe in potable, cold water, or for some in water with salt or borax, and for some with other tastes, hot and non-hot water. These waters may be good for some sick people but not for all, for people of certain ages but not for all, in some but not all countries, and depending on certain habits.

In this, there may be much error; it is necessary to be aware of it and to study it. Strive to know the good from the bad waters by the method described by Hippocrates. These methods are these. Make your decision according to the lightness of the water. its ability to become quickly cold or hot. Hippocrates said about this, “The water which warms quickly and becomes cold quickly is the lightest of waters.” In the fifth section of his book, he said, “The lightness of its weight is so in comparison with any other, and is seen in the rapidity of its drying with what was kneaded with it, and in the quickness of cooking what is cooked [in it].”

Statement on Sleeping and Being Awake

The physician takes care of the matter of sleeping and waking and knows the function of each in healthy and sick bodies. Thus, he should be able, according to bodies of animals, to predetermine the state of a sufficient and suitable amount [of sleep] for the preservation of health and treatment of the ill. This is because sleep is a natural thing without which man cannot retain his health; there must be a definite time for it in the natural order.

The excellent Hippocrates explains it in the sixth discourse of the book On Epidemics. He said, “Weariness, eating, sleeping, and coition all must be done plainfully. ” Galen interpreted “plainfully” as meaning the limitation of their quantities for every man, as [the amount of] sleep is found naturally for different ages of man. We say that it is the kindness of the exalted God who created sleep and rest for the animal’s body in order to return to it a replacement for that which was lost from it during waking. This is because during waking the natural heat expands to the outside of the body and to other regions, and spreads with it the blood which helped it form. It is spread in the body so that the animal moves by the power of [this] heat to its activities and to obtain food for survival.

Whenever it moves, moisture is lost little by little to cause dryness. If it keeps on moving and the waking is not interrupted, then the dryness becomes excessive to its body so that it will die. For this reason, the exalted God made the times of sleeping between the times of waking. This is so that the heat is gathered during sleep inside the body and cold is outside; the organism of the animal relax, its senses abate, its actions stop, and heat begins in the digestion of food, in improvement of fluids to aid the organs. The latter exert an attractive power and are moistened in this way. This is the opposite of losing [moisture]. With sleep, also strengthening are the retentive faculty, the altering power, and the evacuating strength. Due to the soundness of these four powers and the efficiency of their activities, the body is healthy and its functions are proper. in addition to strengthening nature, sleep weakens the physical powers; the senses and faculty of reason are weak during it due to their abdication of these functions.

If this is so, then the physician must know the amount of sleep and work for each man for everyone has a natural quantity which he requires according to his complexion, his habits, his activities, his food, his age, season, and the state of the air. If one of them [i.e. sleeping and wakefulness] is not in its properly natural quantitative state and time, then it indicates divergence from bodily health. For this reason, Hippocrates said, “If sleep and sleeplessness are excessive, then the necessary amount is a bad sing.” When the physician sees this, then he knows that this immoderate condition indicates disease in the brain. This is because sleep is a special state of the brain and occurs when it is cold and moderately moise. If these are excessive then they cause cold brain disease. For this reason, Galen said that sleeplessness comes from coldness of the most important sentient, the brain. When this coldness is strong and mixed with moisture, then the disease called lasir’as” occurs which is cold vertigo. When dryness is also with it, the disease is called catalepsy which is called jumud. Sleeplessness is also because of the heat of the most important sentient but this heat may be either from a particular, bad complexion or from black bile.

Hippocrates said that when sleep causes pain in any disease, it is a sign of death. When sleep is useful, it is not a sign of death. Hippocrates said also that when sleep quiets the confusion of the mind, it is a good sign. Make your decision on sleep and wakefulness according to what we have considered of their conditions and according to what the ancients said about them.

Know that when sleep follows constipation of what should be evacuated or when waking follows evacuation of what was confined, then both are dependent on the difference in the states of the mixtures in the body. When one sleeps and he has unripe food and nutriment which is unabsorbed, it ripens it, improves absorption, heats, and moistens. If it finds the body clean and nutriment is needed, it strengthens the heat and drives moisture off. For this reason, it substitutes for the small amount of substance, the coldness of the body. When [one sleeps] and [has eaten] moderate food, the normal heat is strengthened and is very useful. When during sleep there is much material, it is difficult to ripen it; then sleep is harmful. This is also so in the be-inning of abscesses in intermittent-nittent fevers. For this reason, physicians order no sleep at the beginning of an abscess.

Make use of sleep and waking according to these laws. Some ancients said that in sleep there is a similarity to death. This is because perception by the senses and discrimination by them stop; it is not possible to notice anything perceptible with them. For this reason, it is necessary for students of science and for those who seek the virtues that they not show zeal for sleep but zeal for seeking the realities of science and the virtues during their lives. Otherwise, their waking is sleeping and their life is death.

Statement on Psychic Events

It is necessary fox the physician also to know what psychic events are, how many there are, and from where each kind stems. If he does not know these, then he cannot preserve them in their natural condition and drive away the non-natural. It is said that you should know that man has a power by which he distinguishes and thinks, a power by which he is angry and enraged, and thirdly, a power by which he desires and lusts for pleasures. Man completes his actions and work by these three powers. The ancients called them the deteriorating powers; they recognized that characters and physical events are different for each of these three kinds of power of the soul.

Also he must know what the ancients mean with their word “event”. Galen explained it; I shall relate what he said. Galen wrote that as long as the soul of man remains in its state, this is its state – as rest and quiet. If its state changes, then we can imagine that change as a movement which belongs to it. Some movement is very translational and some is otherwise. We call the movement which is very translational an action, and the movement which is [done] by something other than itself an event. An example of this is that if a man takes a thing and conveys it from its place to another place, then the movement of the hand is an action of that man and his hand, but the movement of the thing is an event of the thing. This is the relation of the action and event for movement in space.

As to the movement in change, as when the body of a man is heated by a fire or the warmth of the sun, this heat is an event to the body, and the heat [of the fire or sun] is the action of the things which heat. When the exalted God created the matter of man’s body from these powers and their actions in whatever amount, it was then necessary that these quantities be natural for that particular man. If any of it is lacking or is excessive, then it is not natural. The natural one indicates possession of a healthy power for a certain body; the unnatural indicates disease [of the power and body].

Because both of the animal souls [the second and third of the three powers] which are in man, especially the carnal one of the two, often harms the rational soul to attain pleasure in a persistent fashion, it is essential that the pleasure be of limited duration and of a moderate amount. When it exceeds this amount, it is harmful and causes illness. For this reason, the intelligent soul will stop this corruption by determining and limiting their periods to act and their amounts. The situation being so, he must know the action of each one of these souls, first separately without being, affected by the other two, and then how it acts with their help. The action of the rational soul is [to determine] the existence of the correlation of things and their difference. An example of this is that when you hear two statements you notice their difference from another, you know the real one and the untrue one. As to its action with the help of another, it is that when the physical desires, it may some movements which are strengthened by the soul of anger. This is the [soul of the] animal since this soul has strength and courage. If these were not, it would be impossible to make a stand and attain any aim. Galen said that the essence of this soul, by which is meant the soul of anger, is the natural beat. Galen said, “The essence of this power by which man is strengthened in endurance and patience in work, in my opinion, is the natural heat since whenever the movement of the natural heat is stronger, the man is more hot; also coldness causes laziness and quietness, and thus heat causes willingness, movement, and power for action. Thus, youth and wine arouse movement and courage in man, and age and cold remedies cause laziness and weakness. The latter corrupt action and movement.”

Moderation of the rational soul indicates that it is sagacious, has much understanding and a good memory, and has a longing for beautiful deeds.

When it is not in moderation, the opposite is true.

Galen said, “It is true that if the rational soul is silly, of little understanding and memory, and not desirous of meritorious actions, and both the animal souls are strong but not very obedient, then it [i.e. the rational soul] is not moderate. The rational soul needs to be prepared for perspicacity and for what is correct, and to be expert in attuning, to things and their differences. If the power of the soul of an-er, an animal one, is of easy obedience, the carnal soul, a vegetable one, is weak. It is because the latter is not dependent on the rational soul.” Plato described it and likened it to the predatory beast, saying, “Whoever needs to be straightened up has a weak vegetable soul for this should not hinder the rational soul from its actions. Since the powers of these souls from its actions. Since the powers of these souls are dependent on the complexity of the body, whatever happens to their actions and characters in the events which change them and remove them from moderation and a satisfactory state, occurs only because of bodily change. This may be seen in what happens to one who is anxious, excited, or steals, drinks wine and other drinks.” He, whose complexion is changed by any of these causes, the examples alone, changes in his character as a result and in the states of his souls which were previously healthy – when his soul was quiet without movement and without that event. Therefore, the physician must be trained to recognize the types of these complexions so as to know in certain people’s complexions, if they wish preservation, what is good in one’s character and the powers of his souls, and also the rectification of that which is out of line. It is also necessary to investigate further what has happened to the souls if it may be determined for the bodies. In some people who are sensitive to shame there may be a natural inclination which is not the state of the soul nor the complexion. One exception to the word “naturally” is that nature may be somewhat changed by education.

If you wish to examine what is in the [irrational] nature of man and the events of the souls and their characters, examine those who are the uneducated – the unimproved with virtues and sciences – as, for example, children. You will find these events and characters separately especially in those who do not have good habits and have no one to educate them. These do only what is in their nature.

Galen has described some of these characters in children. We must relate it in his words. The observation was made by one of intelligence and a good mind. Galen said, “There are children who do not lie at all and children who do not speak the truth at all. Some feel ashamed and others do not. Some are timid and some bold; some are voracious and some are not. Some are generous and help one another and some are avaricious and do not help one another. Some of them like cruelty and anger, some like justice. Some have mercy on any sympathy for children who are beaten and some advise to beat them and laugh about it. They differ from one another; the differences are in their characters.

“If this is so, then the physician must know the [irrational] natural character and the difference between it and the educated character so as to examine the condition of the souls and the events [associated with them]; the character is improved with good education and good habits do not cause him to err.”

“Just as association with good and virtuous ones causes the soul to acquire the virtues and goodness of the [good] souls, so associating with evil ones and those with bad habits spoils the character of many people. They lose their good temperament for the other [evil one]. For this reason, the physician must first take care of the soul by improving the soul of the patient and the events [associated with it]. He must care for the soul more than anything else since the completion of man is in his soul; completion is dearer than that which is completed.”

From these conclusions mentioned, one must know that purpose of the book, to encourage it, and to read what Galen and others have stated. Galen explained it in his book On Natural Powers and in his book On the Opinions of hippocrates. Plato described [it] in his book On the Characteristics of the Soul and in his writing where he explained that the powers of the soul are dependent -on the complexion of the body, the actions of the soul and its characteristics, and other events relating to it. He also explained that each of the three powers which many ancients called the souls, i.e. that rational, animal, and vegetable souls, has a dwelling and a place special to its actions. The place of the rational soul is the brain; the place of the animal soul is the heart, and the place of the vegetable soul, which is carnal, is the liver. Undoubtedly, upon the health of these organs will depend the health of the souls in action. If they are sick, then [the souls will be] ill. Thus, it is necessary as previously mentioned, that the physician understand the states of these organs if he wants to recognize “physical events.” The latter are mentioned as part of the natural matter previously numbered; they are the attributes of the air, motion, quietness, food, drink, discharge [of excesses] and congestion, sleeping, waking, physical events, the countries, occupations, and other matters mentioned earlier.

We mentioned the importance of these natural matters to maintain completely the health of the body and to maintain the health of organs and their parts. We began, by example, teaching the friends of the medical arts to show how the physician uses them for the maintenance of health. Our example for this was the brain since it is the most important of bodily organs. We set down in each chapter, what we mentioned of the statements on these natural matters, the summations and principles which encourage students. We recall for the learned ones what was said regarding, every meaning. We did not finish them all but discussed some of them, For this reason, we returned to the rest, as we did previously, for a statement on treatment of the brain which is the example here for all organs. Then we went on to mention treatment of one organ as distinguished from another by brief descriptions. God is the helper with His generosity.

Statement on Habits

Habit is very important in the preservation of health and in the treatment of the ill. This is because in mankind people are accustomed to things in [certain] measures and times. [Accordingly], their complexions develop to endure them and their bodies are healthy with them. When they [i.e. the habits] stop, then their health is affected, they become ill and their bodies are troubled. Also inhabitants of countries located in different situations are accustomed and grow used to different activities, different foods and drinks, different dwellings, and so on. For them, these are natural and necessary for maintenance of the body rather than being unnatural. Through these habits, the body retains its health. Though some may become accustomed to the morals of others and some consent to the actions of others, there are some people for whom these actions and morals are not praiseworthy and satisfactory. An example of this is that some people are accustomed to the eating of barley bread and to eating curd and cheese. Also you find that some people are accustomed to drinking much pure wine for their complexion is hot, their bodies accept it, and it suits their health. We also observe that some whose complexions are hot cannot drink that amount of wine and drugs. This is so because of habit. Also we find that some people since childhood have been in heavy occupations of a difficult type so that their bodies are weak and thin from going through that toil and weariness continually. You will also find that some who are stouter and stronger than these cannot endure these occupations since they are not accustomed to them. When one who is accustomed to food in a certain amount increases this quantity, then it is harmful. Thus, he who is accustomed to eating once [at a certain time], eats twice, then he is harmed to the point of illness.

Hippocrates said much concerning this. I shall give two of them [i.e. his statements]. One concerns the change of habits of people. The second is general, and example of which is the case of different people who are accustomed to certain things which are very natural for them. It is not good to give these up.

As to the statement of Hippocrates in regard to the habits of people, he said, “It is obvious that unwise management in eating and drinking is harmful for the preservation of health. This is easily seen in the change from one kind of regimen to another. The change in one who was accustomed to eating once [a day] to a contrary [system] causes harm and weakness. If one eats at an unaccustomed time, it weakens him immediately, overburdens his body, and makes it lazy and atonic.

“Some may be exposed to the softness of nature. The cause of this is that one’s stomach is exposed to the contrary of what is the natural state. This may be because his habit was to have an empty stomach and not be filled twice, and not to digest food twice. It may become accustomed to being filled twice, i.e. in the transition period from one habit of eating to another, if the bowels had been exhausted in the [double) eating period. For this, it is required that one sleep the entire night after the evening meal, if it is winter avoiding the cold, and if it is summer avoiding the heat. If it is not possible for one to sleep then he walks gently a great deal without stopping. After that he does not eat or eats only a little. A little does not harm one; having the same effect is also a drink not mixed with water.”

This statement of Hippocrates is sufficient to explain and serve as an example for what we mentioned of the change in the body with the change in habits for anyone. If you wish to listen to all that Hippocrates has related on the subject of habits and also what Galen has said in his commentary on it, then delve into Hippocrates’ book and Galen’s commentary on it.

As to a general example, Hippocrates said, “I shall give you a demonstration from the best of proofs as to the softness of one’s body. This is that you find many Scythians, all of whom are in agriculture, who are heavy in their shoulder blades, in their upper arms, wrists, haunches, and in their chests. This is due only to the softness of their nature. They cannot string a bow or shoot javelins with their shoulders because of their softness and weakness. If they are steamed, the moistness in their joints dries and they become stronger than previously…

“They are not bound in clothes in childhood as is practiced in Egypt. This is not their usual custom since they ride the horse constantly. Those males who cannot ride the horse but sit on the cart rarely hasten in walking because of their heaviness; their females are stronger than they in breadth and thickness.”

He also said, “I declare that because they ride the horse, they are affected by an illness called qadmata in Greek . This is because their feet are always suspended on the horse. When the illness is strongly evident, they become lame. They treat themselves in this manner. When their illness begins, they cut open two veins behind the ears bilaterally. When the blood is shed, sleep overpowers them because of weakness. So they complete the treatment; some of them recover and some do not.”

I believe that the seminal fluid is corrupted by this treatment since whoever is bled in these two veins behind the ears becomes sterile. Most are bled only in those two veins.

Thus, I have related to you these statements once again and improved the way for you to recognize the changes due to habit in healthy and ill people. If you wish to listen to the words of Hippocrates on habits, and how the inhabitants of [various] countries acquire them depending on the change of air, water, and countries, read what he wrote in his book on countries, water, and air. By means of it, you will be in a position to judge many factors related to habits. I finish [here) what I mentioned to you [hoping to] awaken and encourage [you].

More than 1400 years ago, Allah, All-Mighty, told us through His Messenger sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) that honey can heal a variety of medical problems.

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Honey is a remarkable viscous liquid, prepared by bees from nectars of various plants. It has occupied a prominent place in traditional medicines throughout history. The ancient Egyptians, Assyrians, Chinese, Greeks and Romans employed honey for different diseases.The Noble Qur’an and many Prophetic narrations refer to honey as a great healer of disease.Allah, Almighty, says (what means):

“And your Lord inspired the bee, saying: ‘Take you habitations in the mountains and in the trees and in what they erect. Then, eat of all fruits, and follow the ways of your Lord made easy (for you).’ There comes forth from their bellies, a drink of varying colour wherein is healing for men. Verily, in this is indeed a sign for people who think.”

Al-Qur’an 16:68-69

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, related:

A man came to the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and said: “My brother has some abdominal trouble.” The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said to him, “Let him drink honey.” The man returned to the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and said: “O Messenger of Allah! I let him drink honey, but it caused him more pain.” The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said to him: “Go and let him drink honey!” The man went and let his brother drink honey then returned back and said: “O Messenger of Allah, it did not cause him except more pains.” The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then said: “Allah has said the truth, but your brother’s abdomen has told a lie. Let him drink honey.” So he made him drink honey and he was cured.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim

The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, also said:

“Make use of the two remedies: honey and the Qur’an.”

At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Al-Bayhaqi

Modern medicine is only just learning of this fact!!

Some of the benefits of honey

  1. Alleviates inflammation of cornea if used locally on the eye.
  2. An antibiotic if used locally in situations of wounds and burns, and it is used for healing of wounds:
    • In case of wounds, honey absorbs moisture from the air, facilitates healing process and prevents scarring. This is because honey stimulates the growth of epithelial cells that form the new skin cover. In this way, honey may eliminate the need for tissue transplantation.
    • Honey stimulates the re-growth of tissue involved in the healing process. It stimulates the formation of new blood capillaries and the growth of fibroblasts that replace the connective tissue of the deeper layer of the skin and produce the collagen fibres that give strength to the repair.
    • Honey has an anti-inflammatory action, which reduces the swelling around a wound. This improves circulation and thus hastens the healing process.
    • Honey does not stick to the underlying wound tissues, so there is no tearing away of newly formed tissue, and no pain, when dressings are changed.
    • Thanks to its antimicrobial property, honey provides a protective barrier to prevent wounds becoming infected. It also rapidly clears any existing infection from wounds. It is fully effective, even with antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
    • Some studies showed that honey is a good treatment against the hospital infection bacteria “superbugs” (MRSA.)[the_ad_group id=”202″]
  3. As honey does not accommodate bacteria, this bactericide (bacteria-killing) property of honey is named “the inhibition effect.” There are various reasons of this anti-microbial property of the honey. Some examples are: the high sugar content that limits the amount of water microorganisms need for growth, its high acidity (low pH) and composition which deprive bacteria from nitrogen necessary for reproduction. The existence of hydrogen peroxide as well as antioxidants in the honey prevent bacteria growth.
  4. Antioxidant: Those are the components in cells that get rid of harmful by-products of normal metabolic functions. These elements inhibit destructive chemical reactions that cause spoilage of food and many chronic illnesses. Researchers believe food products rich in antioxidants may prevent heart problems and cancer. Strong antioxidants are present in honey: Pinocembrin, pinobaxin, chrisin and galagin. Pinocembrin is an antioxidant that merely exists in the honey.
  5. A treatment for gastric and duodenal ulcers, as honey decreases the secretion of hydrochloric acid to a normal rate, thus helping to heal such ulcers and alleviate the related pains and reduce resultant cases of vomiting and colic. For the treatment to be effective, honey should be taken dissolved in warm water one or two hours before meals.
  6. A treatment for involuntary urination at beds. So, if the child is given one small spoon of honey before sleeping, this will have a positive effect, as honey is sedative for the nervous system, thus helping the cyst to relax and expand during sleep.
  7. It supports blood formation: Honey provides an important part of the energy needed by the body for blood formation. It helps in cleansing the blood. It has some positive effects in regulating and facilitating blood circulation. It also functions as a protection against capillary problems and arteriosclerosis.
  8. A treatment for colds, flu and pharyngitis.
  9. A treatment for cases of chronic hepatitis, as honey increases the liver stock of the glycogen material through the increase of blood glucose, thus helping the liver to function properly and relieve it from more burdens.
  10. A treatment for insomnia and a sedative for nerves, as it contains some sedative and tonic substances as sodium and potassium at a reasonable rate such.
  11. A treatment for alcoholic poisoning. Fructose and vitamin B group in the honey help oxidize the alcohol remaining in the body.Healing Powers of Honey
  12. A treatment for cough.
  13. In cosmetics, a mixture of honey with lemon and glycerin is considered of the best old medical prescription for the treatment of skin cracking and roughness, the inflammation and wounds of lips, sun stroke, and dermal pigments.
  14. A treatment for muscular spasm of sportive exercises or facial spasms and eyelids muscles, which disappear after having one big spoon of honey for three days after each meal.
  15. Has a low calorie level. When it is compared with the same amount of sugar, it gives 40% less calories to the body. Although it gives great energy to the body, it does not add weight. Furthermore, the use of honey is safe and has no allergic or side effects.[the_ad_group id=”202″]

The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, was right in his prescription for the ailing man. When the fourth treatment of honey was given to the man, he got better. Such is part of the knowledge that the Almighty has revealed to His Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

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