Biography – 108 [Part – 1]الحمد لله ربّ العالمين
This is a brief Biography of Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyān Radhi’Allāhu’anhuma; we ask Allāh to benefit us thereby.
60. Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyān رضي الله عنهما
The Uncle of the Muslims and Writer of Revelation for the Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds.
He was Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyān bin Umayyah bin ‘Abd ash-Shams bin ‘Abdul-Manaf, Amirul Mu’minīn, the king of Al Islām, Abū ‘Abdir Rahman, Al-Quraishi, Al-Amawi, Al Makki,[ See: Siyar Aalam An-Nubalā 3/120.] uncle of the Muslims and writer of revelation for the Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds.
His mother was Hind bint Utbah bin Rabi’ah. It is said that he accepted Islām before his father during the Umrah of redemption. However, his Islām did not become public until after the conquest of Makkah.
Ibn Abi Dunya and others mentioned that Mu’awiyah was a tall, white and handsome man.
1. Narrated ‘Abdur Rahman bin Abi Umayrah (one of the Companions of Allāh’s Messenger ﷺ) that the Prophet (ﷺ) said to Mu’awiyah: “O Allāh, make him guiding, rightly guided and guide others by him.” [Sahih: see Sahih Sunan At-Tirmidhi 3018, As-Sahihah 1969.]
2. From Abu Idrees Al-Hawlāni, who said: “When ‘Umar bin Al-Khatāab removed Umayr bin Sa’d from the governorship of Hims, he appointed Mu’awiyah to replace him and people began to say ‘Umayr was removed and Mu’awiyah appointed in his stead!’ ‘Umar said: ‘Do not mention Mu’awiyah except with good for I heard Allāh’s Messenger (ﷺ) say (about him): ‘O Allāh guide (others) by him.” [Sahih along with the preceding one: Sahih Sunan At-Tirmidhī 3019.]
3. ‘Abdullah bin Amr also said: “Mu’awiyah used to write for Allāh’s Messenger (ﷺ).” [Its transmitters are trustworthy: Al-Arna’ūt [Siyar Aalam An-Nubalā 3/122.]
4. Irbād bin Sāriyah narrated that he heard the Prophet (ﷺ) say: “O Allah, teach Mu’awiyah the (knowledge of the) Book, hisāb (calculation) and save him from the punishment (of Fire).” [Reported by Ahmad in Al-Musnad [4/127] in its chain is Al-Harith bn Ziyad Al-Shamee. Al-Hāfidh said in At-Taqrīb: his Ahadith are weak. However, the remainder of the transmitters are reliable. Adh-Dhahabi said: the Hadith has strong corroborations.] [There are numerous reports about his virtues just as there are numerous others (which are not authentic) detracting from his prestige and whatever is authentic has its interpretation and understanding.]
Umar bin Al-Khattāb appointed him governor of Shām and ‘Uthmān also reaffirmed the appointment during his own reign. Al-Imām Adh-Dhahabi said: “I say: It is a sufficient recommendation for the one whom ‘Umar and ‘Uthmān found worthy of appointment as a leader of a sea-port province. He took charge of the administration of the province in the best manner possible. His subjects were well-pleased with his generosity and forbearance. This is in spite of the fact that some of them would have received some hurt from him at a point in time. This is how a monarch ought to be. This is also in spite of the fact that there were other Companions who were far better and more righteous than him. He was a simple man possessing impeccable administrative knowledge and intelligence. His forbearance was superfluous. He was a shepherd most beloved by his flock. He ruled over Shām for twenty years and held the reign of the Khilāfah (authority of the entire Muslim world) for another twenty years, he ruled over the Arabs and non-Arabs alike. The two were included under his authority as it extended over Misr (Egypt), Shām (Syria), Iraq, Khurasan, Persia, the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen, Maghrib and many others.
The Prophet’s (ﷺ) Testament to Him
It is recorded in the Musnad of Imām Ahmad that Mu’awiyah once took a water skin and followed the Prophet (ﷺ) with it. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) raised his head and said to him: “O Mu’awiyah if you are put in charge of the authority then fear Allāh and be just.” Since the Prophet (ﷺ) said this, “I never stopped thinking that I would be tried with the position of authority until I was tried with it eventually.” [Its reporters are trustworthy: reported by Ahmad in his Musnad (4/101)]
Praises of the Companions for Him
Men and Women Around the Messenger
Kurayb, the freed slave of ibn Abbās reported that he once saw Mu’awiyah pray Isha and then he offered his witr with one raka’a and nothing more than that. So I informed Ibn Abbās of his action and he said: “He is correct. My son, there is none of us who is more knowledgeable than Mu’awiyah. It (witr) is either one (raka’a), five, seven or more.” [Al-Arna’ūt said: Its transmitters are trustworthy. It is recorded in Musnad Ash Shāfi’ee (1/108) siyar 3/156.]
From Mujahid who reported from Ash-Sha’bī from Al Hārith from ‘Ali bin Abi Tālib who said: “Do not detest the leadership of Mu’awiyah for if you were to be deprived of him, you will see heads severed from their trunks (necks).” [ See; Tārikh Al-Islam 2/378][To be Continued…]
May Allāh سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى be pleased with them and they with Him.
ان شاء الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ
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