*Understand Islam *
*What are the Rights of Citizens in an Islamic State?*
*1. Security for Life:*
On the occasion of the Farewell Hajj, Prophet said: “Your lives and properties are forbidden to one another till you meet your Lord on the Day of Resurrection.” Islam prohibits homicide but allows only one exception, that the killing is done in the due process of law which the Quran refers ‘with the truth’. A man can be killed only when the law demands it, and it is obvious that only a court of law can decide whether the execution is being carried out with justice or without justification.
*2. Security for Property:*
Along with security of life, Islam has with equal clarity and definiteness conferred the right of security of ownership of property, as mentioned earlier with reference to the address of the Farewell Hajj. The Law of God categorically declares: “Do not devour one another’s wealth by false and illegal means” (2:188).
*3. The Protection of Honor:*
On the Farewell Hajj, Prophet also forbidden any encroachment upon their honor, respect, and chastity to one another. Quran clearly lays down: “You who believe, do not let one (set of) people make fun of another set… Do not defame one another…” (49:11-12)
*4. Sanctity and Security of Private Life:*
Islam recognizes the right of every citizen of its state that there should be no undue interference or encroachment on the privacy of his life. Quran has laid down the injunction: “Do not spy on one another” (49:12). “Do not enter any houses except your own homes unless you are sure of their occupants’ consent” (24:27).
*5. Security of Personal Freedom:*
Islam has also laid down the principle that no citizen can be imprisoned unless his guilt has been proved in an open court. To arrest a man only on the basis of suspicion and to throw him into a prison without proper court proceedings and without providing him a reasonable opportunity to produce his defense is not permissible in Islam. Quran says: “Whenever you judge between people, you should judge with (a sense of) justice” (4:58).
*6. Right to Protest Against Tyranny:*
Amongst the rights that Islam has conferred on human beings is the right to protest against government’s tyranny. Quran says: “God does not love evil talk in public unless it is by someone who has been injured thereby” (4:148).
*7. Freedom of Expression:*
Islam gives the right of freedom of thought and expression to all citizens of the Islamic State on the condition that it should be used for the propagation of virtue and truth and not for spreading evil and wickedness. (Quran 9:71)
*8. Freedom of Association:*
Islam has also given people the right to freedom of association and formation of parties or organizations. This right is also subject to certain general rules. It should be exercised for propagating virtue and righteousness and should never be used for spreading evil and mischief.
*9. Freedom of Conscience and Conviction:*
Islam also gives the right to freedom of conscience and conviction to its citizens in an Islamic State. The Holy Quran has laid down the injunction: “There should be no coercion in the matter of faith” (2:256).
*10. Protection of Religious Sentiments:*
Along with the freedom of conviction and freedom of conscience, Islam has given the right to the individual that his religious sentiments will be given due respect, and nothing will be said or done which may encroach upon this right. (Quran 6:108)
*11. Equality Before Law:*
Islam gives its citizens the right to absolute and complete equality in the eyes of the law. Islam clearly insists and demands that even all officials of the Islamic State, whether he be the head or an ordinary employee, are equal in the eyes of the law. None of them is above the law or can claim immunity.
For those who would like to know more about Islam: