QUESTIONS ON FASTING IN RAMADAAN
What is the ruling on the fast of the menstruating and postpartum woman? If she delays compensating her missed days past the following Ramadaan, what is upon her?
Menstruating and postpartum women must break their fast in both instances. It is not permitted for them to fast nor perform the prayer during those periods.
If they were to pray or fast, both acts of worship would be invalid. They have to make up the fasting days but are exempt from making up the prayers.
This is based on the narration of ‘Ā’isha (رضي الله عنها):
“We were commanded to make up the missed fasting days, but not the missed prayers.”
(Al-Bukhārī, 321; Muslim, 335, this specific version is found in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. The authenticity of this narration is agreed upon.)
The scholars agree with that which ‘Ā’isha mentioned regarding the obligation of making up the fasting days but not the missed prayers for the menstruating and postpartum woman.
This is a mercy from Allaah (ﷻ). He has made it easy for them as the prayer is repeated regularly throughout the day (daily).
If they were compelled to make those prayers up, it would be of great hardship.
As for fasting, then this is only once a year, Ramadaan.
There is no hardship in making these days up.
Therefore, the one who delays making up her fast, in that it surpasses the following Ramadaan, then she must repent to Allaah, make up the missed fasting days and feed a poor person for every day owed.
This ruling also applies to the sick and the traveler if they delay compensating those missed days until past the following Ramadaan. They must repent to Allaah, make up the missed days, and feed for every day owed, a poor person.
If their traveling or illness extends past the following Ramadaan, then upon them is to make up those days once they have recovered (for the sick), or
returned home from their journey (for the traveler).
See 30 Questions and Answers on Fasting in Ramadaan by ‘Allāmah Abdul-‘Azīz Ibn Bāz, translated by ‘Abi ‘Abdir-Raḥmān Uways Onwordi at-Taweel
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