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Conquest of Makkah

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Betrayal of the Quraish.

According to the terms of the treaty of Hudaibiya the Arab tribes had the option to be allied with the Quraish or the Muslims. As a consequence the Banu Bakr joined the Quraish, and Banu Khuza’ah joined the Muslims. In disregard of the treaty, Banu Bakr attacked the Banu Khuza’ah, and even when the Banu Khuza’ah sought the sanctuary of the Ka’aba, many persons of the Banu Khuza’ah were chased and put to death.

The Banu Khuza’ah appealed to the Muslims to come to their aid in accordance with the terms of the treaty. The Holy Prophet admitted the obligation of the Muslims to come to the aid of the Banu Khuza’ah. He accordingly gave an ultimatum to the Quraish making three alternative demands, i.e. to pay the blood money for the victims, or terminate their alliance with Banu Bakr, or consider the Hudaibiya pact to be abrogated. In a fit of arrogance the Quraish replied that they would neither pay blood money, nor terminate their alliance with Banu Bakr, and that they were prepared to consider the Hudaibiya pact as having been abrogated. The Holy Prophet welcomed this stand, and he decided to take action. The Quraish soon realized that they had imprudently abrogated the treaty. Abu Sufyan the leader of the Quraish visited Madina to arrive at some amicable settlement with the Muslims, but his efforts proved futile.

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March to Makkah.

After Abu Sufyan had left Madina, the Holy Prophet ordered preparations to be made for a foray. As Abu Bakr came to see his daughter Ayesha he saw that she was packing some goods. He inquired whether the Holy Prophet had ordered her to get things packed up, and she said that he had. 

Ayesha wanted her father to get ready as well. Later the Holy Prophet took Abu Bakr into confidence and told him that he was leading an expedition to Makkah. The Holy Prophet mustered a force over ten thousand strong and marched to Makkah. 

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Havingreached in the neighborhood of Makkah the Muslim army encamped at Marr al-Zahran. The Quraish realized they were no match for this force. Abu Sufyan visited the Muslim camp and became a Muslim. That was the end of the Quraish opposition. The next day the Muslim army marched triumphantly into Makkah.

Occupation of Makkah.

The triumphant entry of the Muslims in Makkah marked the vindication of thc truth of Islam. One of the contingents of the Muslims which entered Makkah was led by Abu Bakr. The city which ten years ago had treated the Muslims cruelly, and had driven them to take refuge with strangers now lay at their foot. ln the hour of triumph the Holy Prophet forgot every evil suffered, and forgave every injury that had been inflicted on him. 

Hegranted amnesty to the people of Makkah. Having entered Makkah the Holy Prophet along with his companions offered prayer of thanks to Allah. Then the Holy Prophet along with Abu Bakr visited the Kaaba. The idols were broken, and as one by one the stone gods were destroyed the Holy Prophet recited the verse from the Holy Quran: “Say the Truth is come and falsehood gone; Verily, falsehood is ever vanishing.”

The Holy Prophet’s address at the Ka’aba.

The people assembled at the Ka’aba, and the Holy Prophet delivered the following address: “There is no God but Allah. He has no associate. He has made good His promise that He held to His bondman and helped him and defeated all his confederates. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood or property is abolished except that of the custody of the Ka’aba and of supplying water to the pilgrims. 

Bearin mind that for any one who is slain the bloodwit is hundred camels. O people of Quraish, surely God has abolished from you all pride of the time of ignorance and all pride in your ancestry, because all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made of clay.”

Then the Holy Prophet turning to the people said: “O ye Quraish, what do you think of treatment that I should accord you”. And they said, ” Mercy, O Prophet of Allah. We expect nothing but good from you.” Thereupon the Holy Prophet said: ” I speak to you in the same words as Joseph spoke to his brothers. This day, there is no reproof against you: Go your way, for you are free.” This announcement was received with great joy and applause.

Conversion of the father of Abu Bakr.

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Abu Bakr went to his home in Makkah and the other members of his family. It was happy reunion. Then Abu Bakr took his father to the Holy Prophet. On seeing him the Holy Prophet said, “Why did you trouble the respected old man; I would have come to him in your house”. 

AbuBakr said that it was but meet that he should have come to the Holy Prophet to accept Islam. The Holy Prophet made Abu Qahafa the father of Abu Bakr sit before him and stroke his chest, and asked him to accept Islam which he did by declaring the article of faith.

The locket of the sister of Abu Bakr.

When the Muslim army had marched to Makkah some one had deprived the sister of Abu Bakr of her silver locket. Abu Bakr stood up before an assembly and addressed the people. He said, “I ask in the name of God for my sister’s necklace.” No one answered him, and thereupon turning to his sister he said, “Sister, regard your necklace as taken by God, and look to Him to requite you.”

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