The treaty of Hudaybiyah was broken by the Quraysh when they sided with the tribe of Banu Bakr (with whom they had a pact to help one another); they attacked the tribe of Khuza’a who were the allies of the Muslims. The treaty was no longer effective. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb realized this and did his best to revive the treaty, but the Muslims had already realized that the kuffar were not to be trusted, and the treaty was never revived. This was a victory for the Muslims.
On hearing the news that the kuffar had broken the treaty, Muhammad (PBUH) prepared to leave for Makkah. Every precaution was taken to keep the kuffar unaware of the coming of the Muslim army. It was the 10th day of Ramadan in the year 8 Hijri that an army of 10,000 Muslims marched towards Makkah. The Muslims encamped at Mar-ur-Zahraan, a place a few kilometers from Makkah.
When the shepherds of Makkah returned in the evening they reported to the Makkans that a huge army was encamped outside Makkah at Mar-uz-Zahraan. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb went to investigate who this army was and what were they doing in the valley of Makkah. During his investigation he met Hazrat Abbas (RA), the uncle of Muhammad (PBUH) who convinced Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb to have an audience with Muhammad (PBUH). Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb the arch-enemy of Islam who had instigated so many battles against the Muslims was now in the tent of the Prophet (PBUH). Muhammad (PBUH) offered him protection from any harm.
The Muslim army triumphantly entered Makkah without any bloodshed and the kuffar surrendered without an attempt to resist. The city of Makkah was now at the mercy of Muhammad (PBUH) and the Muslims. Everybody was present in the courtyard of the Haram (sanctuary of the Ka’ba). The enemies of Muhammad (PBUH) and Islam were helpless. Muhammad (PBUH) asked them: What do you expect at my hands? The voices of their hearts rang out: “Kindness and pity, gracious brother, gracious nephew”. They were not disappointed. Muhammad (PBUH) used the noble words of Yusuf (AS) when he addressed his brothers: “Have no fear this day, May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy”.
Hinda, the wife of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, who had mutilated the body of Hamza (RA), came in the presence of Muhammad (PBUH) covered in a veil. The most bitter enemy was touched with general amnesty (general pardon) of Muhammad (PBUH) and accepted Islam. Muhammad (PBUH) purified the sacred House of Allah (Ka’ba) removing all its 360 idols and stones, reciting “Truth has come and Falsehood vanished and no more shall falsehood return” (Sahih Bukhari). The sanctuary of the Ka’ba contained such idols as Hubal, Latt and Manaat. They saw their downfall for they were nothing but pieces of stones. Now every nook and corner of Makkah witnessed and resounded with the call of Tauheed. Muhammad (PBUH) also proclaimed that: Allah has forbidden the sale of intoxicants and usury (Interest) is declared as Haram.
It was indeed a unique conquest for Islam and triumph of Muhammad (PBUH)’s unshakable faith in his sacred cause. Witness our beloved Muhammad (PBUH) now seated on mount Safaa delivering his sermon to the multitude of people, contrast this with his flight (Hijrat) and stay in the Cave of Thawr and receiving wounds in the battles. Now his faith in “Surely Allah Is With Us” is the secret of his success in life and mission.
Muhammad (PBUH) had left Madina for Makkah with the Muslim Army on Wednesday 10th Ramadan 8 A.H. and entered Makkah on the 20th of Ramadan and on that very day Makkah was conquered. He remained in Makkah for about 10-15 days and thereafter returned to Madina Tayibah.